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The History and Science behind Hybrid Plasma Technology

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Sep 23rd

Hybrid plasma technology can trace its roots back to the pioneering work of Nikola Tesla, the genius inventor and electrical engineer of the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Tesla’s ground-breaking experiments with electrical discharges and his development of the Tesla coil, a device designed to produce high-voltage, low-current, high-frequency alternating-current electricity, laid the foundation for the exploration of plasma states and their applications. His legacy, intertwined with his profound insights into the behavior of electrical currents and their interactions with gases, paved the way for the subsequent advancements and innovations in the realm of hybrid plasma technology.

Taking inspiration from such profound historical knowledge, Dr. Domagoj Prebeg embarked on an innovative journey in 2005. With a keen understanding of the potential of plasma technology, he founded his inaugural start-up dedicated to this field. By 2007, his second venture certified a medical device that has since been a cornerstone in clinical research. At a time when ‘cold plasma’ was still an emerging concept to many, the device achieved certification as a medical high-frequency ozone generator. This pioneering tool has been influential in multiple sectors, most prominently in dentistry, as evidenced by a plethora of references and studies (please see the list below).

The device has demonstrated its ability to enhance healing, reduce pathogens, inflammation, and pain, with its effects well-documented through numerous clinical cases and studies. After exiting the entrepreneurial scene in 2010, Dr. Prebeg dived deep into investigating the physical phenomena that occurred during the high-frequency ozone generator’s use. His dedication bore fruit with an award-winning PhD thesis in 2016.

In 2017,  Dr. Prebeg, founded Synergotron. The firm was initially focused on developing hybrid plasma technology for clinical application.. The goal was to explore the vast potential of their technology, ranging from specific pathogen reduction to guided tissue regeneration. Over the years, he rallied a team of visionary engineers, striving to develop technical solutions to challenges faced by high-frequency generators. Their efforts led to significant technological advancements, from device miniaturization and signal modulation to innovative transducers ensuring optimal device output control. Synergotron has pursued these groundbreaking innovations, registering them from 2019 to 2021 at national Croatian, PCT, EU, and US levels; these remain patent pending.

However, the global crisis and lockdowns, which left many, especially the elderly, isolated and in pain, steered Synergotron in a new direction. Recognizing their technology as a potential remedy, the team shifted their focus. Thus, in 2021, the genesis of Healeex Wellness began. Against the backdrop of a challenging global environment, Synergotron triumphed, launching the Healeex Wellness device in September 2023. Healeex is not a medical device and should not be mistaken for one. It is specifically designed for body and skin care purposes with aim to alleviate tension, stress and pain, reduce bacteria on the skin in course of skin care and support natural regeneration mechanism. While it isn’t intended for medical applications, it’s important to understand that the foundation of Healeex is deeply rooted in extensive research and development. Its origins can be traced back to the broad clinical reserarch of the technology. This long-standing history of research ensures that while Healeex is used for cosmetic and self-care purposes, it is based on credible and advanced technological principles.


The provided list comprises numerous scientific articles and PhD theses related to medical use of high-frequnecy ozone generator, a forerruner medical product developed and certified by Dr. Prebeg and his team in 2007. Based on the titles and the information provided, here’s a general overview:

  1. Cold Atmospheric Plasma and Ozone Therapy: Multiple articles (e.g., 1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 13, 16, 18, 19, 21, 22, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 34, 39) revolve around the use of cold atmospheric plasma or ozone in various dental therapeutic applications. This includes treatments of osteonecrosis, temporomandibular disorders, gingivitis, oral lichen planus, and more. Some also look at the effect of these treatments on specific cell types or tissues.
  2. Temporomandibular Disorders (TMD): There are articles (e.g., 2, 8, 31) that focus specifically on TMD, comparing the efficacy of different treatments.
  3. Endodontics and Restorative Dentistry: Several entries (e.g., 9, 12, 32, 33, 35, 37) discuss procedures, disinfection methods, and treatments in endodontics and restorative dentistry. Topics include irrigation procedures, root canal disinfections, and the use of various therapeutic agents on dental materials.
  4. Pain, Swelling, and Surgical Recovery: Some articles (e.g., 29, 30, 36, 38) discuss treatments and interventions related to managing pain, swelling, or promoting recovery after dental surgical procedures. This includes the effects of ozone and laser therapies on these outcomes.
  5. Dental Caries and Disinfection: Several articles (e.g., 14, 33, 34, 35) delve into treatments for dental caries and disinfection methods. The efficacy of ozone, lasers, and other interventions in managing dental caries and ensuring effective disinfection is explored.
  6. Bone Healing and Regeneration: A subset of articles (e.g., 19, 25, 28, 38, 39) study the effects of various treatments, including ozone, on bone healing and regeneration. This is especially relevant for procedures that involve bone grafting or are related to conditions like osteonecrosis.

In summary, this list encompasses a wide range of topics, with a particular emphasis on the therapeutic uses of cold atmospheric plasma and high-frequecy ozone generator. The research copiles basic science studies, clinical trials, and case reports, providing a comprehensive view of the current state of knowledge in these areas.

References include:

  1. HRELJA, Marta. Use of cold atmospheric plasma in therapy of osteonecrosis of the jaw. 2023. PhD Thesis. University of Zagreb. School of Dental Medicine.
  2. YAMANER, Funda Esra; CELAKIL, Tamer; GÖKCEN ROEHLIG, Bilge. Comparison of the efficiency of two alternative therapies for the management of temporomandibular disorders. Cranio®, 2022, 40.3: 189-198.
  3. TALMAÇ, Ahmet Cemil; ÇALIŞIR, Metin. Efficacy of gaseous ozone in smoking and non-smoking gingivitis patients. Irish Journal of Medical Science (1971-), 2021, 190: 325-333.
  4. LOPES, João Paulo Schmitt, et al. Ozone therapy in post-extraction socket repair in patients at risk of osteoradionecrosis: case report. 2021.
  5. GIUROIU, Cristian Levente, et al. The combination of diode laser and ozonated water in the treatment of complicated pulp gangrene. Applied Sciences, 2020, 10.12: 4203.
  6. GARCIA, Nathana, et al. Utilização da ozonioterapia em odontologia. Brazilian Journal of Development, 2021, 7.1: 8797-8711.
  7. ZUBAK, Anđela. Application of ozone in dental medicine. 2020. PhD Thesis. University of Zagreb. School of Dental Medicine. Department of Oral Medicine.
  8. CELAKIL, Tamer, et al. Management of pain in TMD patients: Bio-oxidative ozone therapy versus occlusal splints. CRANIO®, 2019, 37.2: 85-93.
  9. KOSTRIĆ, Valentina. Irrigation Procedures In Endodontics. 2019. PhD Thesis. University of Zagreb. School of Dental Medicine. Department of Endodontics and Restorative Dentistry.
  10. GULAFSHA, M.; ANUROOPA, P. Miracle of ozone in dentistry: an overview. World Journal of Pharmaceutical Research, 2019, 8.3: 665-677.
  11. MOŠTAK, Ivan; PREBEG, Domagoj; CIFREK, Mario. Modelling of therapeutic cold plasma generator using finite element method. In: 2018 EMF-Med 1st World Conference on Biomedical Applications of Electromagnetic Fields (EMF-Med). IEEE, 2018. p. 1-2.
  12. KUFTINEC, Krešimir. Contemporary therapeutic approach in the treatment of pulpal-periodontal disease. 2018. PhD Thesis. University of Zagreb. School of Dental Medicine. Department of Endodontics and Restorative Dentistry.
  13. MURIC, Almina; GOKCEN-ROHLIG, Bilge; CELAKIL, Tamer. Effect of topical ozone therapy on denture-related traumatic ulcers: A case report. Praxis medica, 2018, 47.3-4: 53-57.
  14. ÖTER, Banu, et al. Evaluation of antibacterial efficiency of different root canal disinfection techniques in primary teeth. Photomedicine and laser surgery, 2018, 36.4: 179-184.
  15. PREBEG, D., et al. Analysis of electric field and emission spectrum in the glow discharge of therapeutic plasma electrode. Automatika, 2017, 58.1: 1-10.
  16. KUTLUBAY, Zekayi, et al. Ozone Therapy Versus Topical Hyaluronic Acid-Triamcinolone Acetonide-Diclofenac Sodium In Treatment of Recurrent Aphthous Stomatitis. Journal of the Turkish Academy of Dermatology, 2017, 11.3.
  17. ALKAN, Özer, et al. Effects of ozone and prophylactic antimicrobial applications on shear bond strength of orthodontic brackets. Turkish journal of orthodontics, 2017, 30.4: 101.
  18. BAYER, Suzan, et al. Comparison of laser and ozone treatments on oral mucositis in an experimental model. Lasers in medical science, 2017, 32: 673-677.
  19. AKPINAR, Aysun, et al. The effects of ozone on the local and systemic interleukin 1β (IL-1β) and IL-10 levels experimental periodontitis model in rats. Cumhuriyet Medical Journal, 2017, 39.3: 608-619.Duman IG, Davul S, Gokce H, Gonenci R, Özden R, Uruc V. Effects of gaseous ozone treatment on bone regeneration in femoral defect model in rats. Journal of Hard Tissue Biology. 2017;26(1):7-12.
  20. PREBEG, Domagoj, et al. Antimicrobial effect of ozone made by KP syringe of high-frequency ozone generator. Acta Stomatologica Croatica, 2016, 50.2: 134.
  21. PREBEG, Domagoj. Determination of Physical and Chemical Properties in the Treatment Field of a High-Frequency Ozone Generator. 2016. PhD Thesis. University of Zagreb. School of Dental Medicine).
  22. PAVELIĆ B, Cold Atmospheric Plasma: Theoretical Basics And Possibilities Of Clinical Application,, ed.Tarle, Zrinka. “Abstracts of the 3rd International Congress of the School of Dental Medicine, University of Zagreb.” Acta Stomatologica Croatica, vol. 51, no. 3, Sept. 2017, pp. 249+.
  23. TAŞDEMIR, Zekeriya; ALKAN, Banu Arzu; ALBAYRAK, Haydar. Effects of ozone therapy on the early healing period of deepithelialized gingival grafts: a randomized placebo‐controlled clinical trial. Journal of periodontology, 2016, 87.6: 663-671.
  24. TUNCAY, Öznur, et al. Effect of gaseous ozone and light‐activated disinfection on the surface hardness of resin‐based root canal sealers. Scanning, 2016, 38.2: 141-147.
  25. TOKER, Hülya. The effects of allograft combined with ozone therapy on regeneration of calvarial defects in rats. Cumhuriyet Dental Journal, 2017, 19.3: 205-213.
  26. PAVELIĆ Božidar et al. Cold atmospheric plasma – clinical application in dentistry (a review article). Medix, 2016, 23: 115-116.
  27. KAZANCIOGLU, Hakki Oguz; ERISEN, Merve. Comparison of low-level laser therapy versus ozone therapy in the treatment of oral lichen planus. Annals of dermatology, 2015, 27.5: 485-491.
  28. ERDEMCI, F., et al. Histomorphometric evaluation of the effect of systemic and topical ozone on alveolar bone healing following tooth extraction in rats. International journal of oral and maxillofacial surgery, 2014, 43.6: 777-783.
  29. KAZANCIOGLU, H. O.; KURKLU, E.; EZIRGANLI, S. Effects of ozone therapy on pain, swelling, and trismus following third molar surgery. International journal of oral and maxillofacial surgery, 2014, 43.5: 644-648.
  30. KAZANCIOGLU, Hakki Oguz; EZIRGANLI, Seref; DEMIRTAS, Nihat. Comparison of the influence of ozone and laser therapies on pain, swelling, and trismus following impacted third-molar surgery. Lasers in medical science, 2014, 29: 1313-1319.
  31. DOĞAN, Mansur, et al. Effects of high-frequency bio-oxidative ozone therapy in temporomandibular disorder-related pain. Medical principles and practice, 2014, 23.6: 507-510.
  32. KATALINIĆ, Ivan; GLOCKNER, Karl; ANIĆ, Ivica. Influence of several root canal disinfection methods on pushout bond strength of self‐etch post and core systems. International Endodontic Journal, 2014, 47.2: 140-146.
  33. ÖZÇOPUR, Betül, et al. Ozone application on devitalized bleached dentin Effect of resin cement on shear bond strength. Selcuk Dental Journal, 2014, 1.2: 59-65.
  34. ATABEK, Didem. Application of ozone in dental caries treatment. Acta Odontologica Turcica; Cilt 31, Sayı 3 (2014); 149, 2014.
  35. GURBUZ, Taskin, et al. Scanning electron microscopic analyses of the effects of different disinfectant methods on dentinal structure. Journal Of International Dental And Medical Research, 2013, 6.2: 65-68.
  36. KAPTAN, Figen; KAZANDAG, Meric Karapinar; ISERI, Ufuk. Treatment of bisphosphonate related osteonecrosis following root canal therapy at the 1-year follow-up: report of two cases. Therapeutics and clinical risk management, 2013, 477-482.
  37. ATABEK, Didem, et al. In-Vitro Antibacterial Efficiency Of Irrigation Regimens Against Biofilm Of Enterococcus Faecalis. Atatürk Üniversitesi Diş Hekimliği Fakültesi Dergisi, 2013, 23.2: 165-171.
  38. KAZANCIOGLU, Hakki Oguz; EZIRGANLI, Seref; AYDIN, Mehmet Serif. Effects of laser and ozone therapies on bone healing in the calvarial defects. Journal of Craniofacial Surgery, 2013, 24.6: 2141-2146.
  39. OZDEMIR, H., et al. Effect of ozone therapy on autogenous bone graft healing in calvarial defects: a histologic and histometric study in rats. Journal of periodontal research, 2013, 48.6: 722-726.
  40. BRAKUS, Ivan, et al. Aquacel® Ag and Ozone in Bisphosphonate Induced Osteonecrosis of the Jaws (BIONJ) Therapy: A Case Report. Acta stomatologica Croatica: International journal of oral sciences and dental medicine, 2013, 47.3: 241-245.
  41. DALKILIC, Evrim Eliguzeloglu, et al. Effect of different disinfectant methods on the initial microtensile bond strength of a self-etch adhesive to dentin. Lasers in medical science, 2012, 27: 819-825.
  42. KIVANÇ, Bağdagül H., et al. The effect of the application of gaseous ozone and ND: YAG laser on glass‐fibre post bond strength. Australian Endodontic Journal, 2012, 38.3: 118-123.
  43. GUPTA, G.; MANSI, B. Ozone therapy in periodontics. Journal of medicine and life, 2012, 5.1: 59.
  44. PAVELIĆ, B. Successful use of high frequency ozone generator and bio-oxidative therapy in endo-restorative treatment. In: 15th Biennial Congress of the European Society of Endodontology. Hrvatska znanstvena bibliografija i MZOS-Svibor. 2011.
  45. WILCZYŃSKA-BORAWSKA, Magdalena, et al. Ozone in dentistry: microbiological effects of gas action depending on the method and the time of application using the ozonytron device. Experimental study. In: Annales Academiae Medicae Stetinensis. 2011. p. 99-103.
  46. FILIPOVIC-ZORE, Irina, et al. Impact of ozone on healing after alveolectomy of impacted lower third molars. Saudi Med J, 2011, 32.6: 642-4.
  47. PAVUNA, Davor, et al. The Emergence and Ozone Treatment Studies of Living Cells. In: Supramolecular Structure and Function 10. Springer Netherlands, 2011. p. 125-132.
  48. CEHRELI, S. Burcak, et al. Effect of ozone pretreatment on the microleakage of pit and fissure sealants. Journal of Clinical Pediatric Dentistry, 2010, 35.2: 187-190.
  49. PAVELIĆ, B., et al. Garres osteomyelitis resolved by endodontic treatment and use of ozone therapy: a case report. In: 14th Biennial Congress of ESE. 2009.
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